Anna Mani, India’s first woman scientist, was born into a Syrian Christian family in Peermade, Travancore. indian physicist who defied gender norms Her father was a civil engineer, and she was the seventh of eight children. She spent her formative years immersed in books. By age twelve, she had read almost every book in her local public library.
Nan-Wei Gong was born and raised in Taiwan, where she attended an all-girls high school. Despite her gender-neutral upbringing, indian physicist who defied gender norms she was an excellent student of math and science. After a high school physics teacher encouraged her to pursue a career in STEM, she eventually graduated with a degree in Materials Science and Engineering from National Tsing Hua University.
Despite her humble origins, Kamala Sohonie managed to break many gender norms to become the first woman in India to hold a doctorate in biochemistry. She was educated at indian physicist who defied gender norms Bombay University and topped the class upon graduation in 1933. Upon applying to the Indian Institute of Science, she was denied a research fellowship. However, she persisted and eventually won admission.
After graduating with the best grades in her batch, Kamala decided to pursue her masters degree in Physics at IISc, following a family tradition. This move would pave the way for her indian physicist who defied gender norms career. The institution was helmed by the renowned physicist Prof. C. V. Raman, who was also the first Asian to win the Nobel Prize in Physics. In addition, the institute was considered one of the best in India for scientific research.
A pioneer of organic chemistry, Kamala developed drugs that treat cancer, epilepsy, and other diseases. She became the first woman to earn a doctorate from an Indian university and the first woman to be elected General President of the Indian Science Congress. Her remarkable career began at a time when female literacy in India was less than 1% and women were rarely encouraged to pursue careers. Despite societal barriers, she managed to publish over 400 papers and earn a PhD.
Though her success is still considered modest, she has opened up the world of science to women. Her quiet, unassuming demeanor made her an inspiration to women across the globe. AAUW’s Million Dollar Fellowship campaign funded her fellowship, which resulted in 23 women being awarded fellowships – 13 national and ten international.
In addition to her research, Kamala is also an advocate for ensuring healthy food. She has written several books in Marathi for young students and has contributed to several consumer rights papers. She also founded the Consumer Guidance Society of India, an association of nine women that promotes the rights of consumers and advocates for the protection of their health.
In addition to her Nobel Prize, she was also awarded the Rashtrapati Award, an honor for exceptional achievements in science. In addition to being a professor at Lady Hardinge Medical College in New Delhi, she also served as the HOD of the biochemistry department at the Royal Institute of Science in Bombay. indian physicist who defied gender norms After retiring from her post, she continued to research in high energy physics, participating in various conferences and collaborating with different institutes. She continued her research until her death in 1998.
During the colonial period, India’s women scientists faced severe gender bias. Modern science education had only just begun in the country, and social reformers had already been campaigning for girls to go to school and pursue scientific studies, but opportunities were still limited. This, however, did not deter women from pursuing scientific careers.
M Sreenivasayya’s family members were both scientists, and their influence shaped her interests and choices. The first step in her career was pursuing a degree in chemistry. She had a great appreciation for the work of her father and uncle, and she decided to study this field. indian physicist who defied gender norms After graduating from high school at the top of her class, she enrolled in a BSc (Physics and Chemistry) course at the Bombay Presidency College.
Despite this, most adults in India agree that both men and women should work. However, many believe that men should earn more than women. In a recent survey, more than 82% of adults in India agreed that men should be given more rights in the workplace and should have more opportunities to earn money.
India’s attitudes towards gender roles have changed over time. While traditional gender roles are still present, Indian adults who have college degrees are less likely to support traditional gender norms. About a quarter of Indian adults say that women should care for children. While the vast majority of adults believe that men should be the primary caregivers, they also agree that women should obey their husbands.