The Clima-Med project aims to support eight partner countries from the Southern Neighbourhood towards sustainable, climate-resilient development. Launched in June 2018, the project aims to establish trusted partnerships among partners in the Southern Neighbourhood, improve climate change governance, and mainstream climate action in the public sector. With offices in the United Kingdom, France, and Germany, the project aims to achieve the three aims listed above.
Creating a clima
The Toronto arts scene is experiencing a rebirth and a climatic shift thanks to several new buildings being developed for the city. This growth has generated an excitement for art, culture and design that has been reflected in the local community. Creating a climate that embraces creativity is crucial for the city’s future success. Luckily, there are some simple ways to create this climate in your community. Here are some tips to get you started.
Modeling the clima
In determining future climate changes, modelers calculate the radiative forcing associated with emissions. They add up the energy captured by greenhouse gases and subtract the cooling effect of aerosols. Natural forcings are also included, but their magnitude is small compared to anthropogenic forcings. Most of these factors are well-known, and the uncertainty of the results is small. However, the uncertainties surrounding aerosol effects are large. For this reason, modelers are increasingly relying on climate models.
The climate system is made up of a large number of variables that are constantly interacting. To simulate this, scientists use complex mathematical equations and a thorough understanding of the scales and importance of different variables. Several assumptions are necessary to simplify or completely ignore some aspects of the climate system. In this article, we will examine some of these assumptions. The results of climate models vary according to their assumptions. While some models can reproduce observed conditions of certain climatic variables, others are not very good.
The differences in the ice-sheet reconstructions are large, which is one reason why model developers must choose a single protocol to use. Nevertheless, the PMIP4 dataset will help to achieve this goal by reducing the uncertainty of the simulations. In addition to this, model developers should consider the uncertainties inherent in the data before releasing any results. The climate model should be capable of reproducing the actual climate and ice sheet conditions.
The new atmospheric model takes into account thermodynamic and radiative processes and fully fits empirical data. The model’s upper limits on the greenhouse effect range from zero to a few mK per ppm CO2. The mK value represents 1/1000 degrees Kelvin. The greenhouse effect cannot explain the correlation between carbon dioxide and surface temperature, which is easily explained by Henry’s Law. Other phenomena are also insignificant. In sum, climate model results can give us useful insights into the future of the planet.
GCM expressions can be categorized in three main categories: general circulation models, coupled atmosphere-ocean GCMs, and atmospheric general circulation models. Each model includes a different set of assumptions and equations. To simplify things, GCMs describe large-scale air masses and the transmission of radiation through the atmosphere. They also include other factors such as air-sea interactions and vegetation parameters. The equations are based on known physical laws and empirical relations.
Using CLIMA-atmos in Large-Eddy Simulations
Using CLIMA-atmos for Large-Eddy Simulations involves several important steps. First, the initial profiles of surface and remote sensing soundings are ingested into the model. This data is then used as the surface forcing parameters, such as the surface temperature and specific humidity. These surface forcing parameters are used to calculate the boundary-layer height h. After the boundary-layer height h is calculated, the surface friction velocity u* and the surface buoyancy flux Q* are measured.
The second step involves improving the model resolution. The resolution of the large-eddy simulations was increased to hectometer scales, which captured the large-scale lateral distribution of clouds. The kilometer-scale resolution improved the simulations by resolving vertical velocity variance and cloud topography. Moreover, this increased resolution is based on parameterised cloud field. Consequently, this new technique can be used to improve weather forecasts and climate projections.
The IWP of cloud tops computed by the model was similar to the measured values on the day of 4 July 2015. The simulated IWP value reflects the same values as those provided by satellite products. However, the satellite retrieval method switches input channels at sunset, which leads to unreliable estimates. Hence, two domain-averaged IWP values are obtained from the ICON-LEM data. The model produces two separate domain-averaged IWP values: the cloud ice water path and the total frozen water path, which is a composite of cloud ice habits.
Researchers in the field of atmospheric physics have developed a model that enables them to compute a cloud resolving parameter in a large-eddy simulation. Researchers S. J. Woolnough and P. S. Bretherton have recently published the first preliminary results. The model predicts higher IWC than the actual values of cirrus bottom height. The IWC prediction obtained by the model is comparable to the ICON-LEM IWC at 6 km.
Funding climate resilience initiatives
State and local governments are grappling with the upfront costs of climate resilience infrastructure, but the financial benefits of building and maintaining such infrastructure are long-term. Resilience elements also decrease the cost of operating and maintenance. While it may be difficult to quantify the benefits of a resilient infrastructure, these initiatives not only reduce the risk of disasters to local residents, but they also protect culturally important elements. Funding for climate resilience initiatives is a crucial part of any city’s long-term planning.
PPCR aims to integrate climate resilience into national and regional development plans. PPCR funded actions must not be isolated but should be fused with other resources and parallel co-financing measures (government and private sectors). The CIF has no accreditation process. MDBs can access and implement PPCR funds. For instance, the Inter-American Development Bank, implementing entity for PPCR investments, is one such MDB. However, the implementation of PPCR and CIF is not yet complete.
Climate change is a global problem, affecting 2.5 billion people. Many of these people depend on climate-sensitive activities. Adaptation efforts will help them stay in business. USAID is helping communities build resilience by funding a range of initiatives to support climate-adaptation. Business owners and managers typically view climate change as a threat multiplier. To prepare for climate change impacts, businesses can build additional onsite energy resources or identify backup supply chains. Small businesses may implement green roofs to capture water or implement communication strategies.
In response to the challenges posed by climate change, cities and local communities are investing in infrastructure upgrades and climate-smart planning. Building improvements and nature-based solutions are key to protecting against extreme heat. Such initiatives are especially important for historically marginalized communities. Baltimore, for example, has implemented Resilience Hubs in trusted community facilities. These hubs provide essential day-to-day services and act as resource centers during hazard events.
Federal resources also provide substantial support for state climate resilience. For example, the Department of Energy and Climate Change (DOE) provides capital grants to states to preserve resilient landscapes. In addition, federal agencies provide technical assistance and climate data to assist communities. These resources can also be used to fund local resilience projects. But, the need for more federal assistance is even greater. So, what are the best ways to fund climate resilience initiatives? Let’s look at some of these options.
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